CERN and the American Physical Society sign an open access agreement for SCOAP3

Geneva, 27 April 2017. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN1) and the American Physical Society (APS2) signed an agreement today for SCOAP3 – the Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics. Under this agreement, high-energy physics articles published in three leading journals of the APS will be open access as from January 2018.

All authors worldwide will be able to publish their high-energy physics articles in Physical Review C, Physical Review D and Physical Review Letters at no direct cost. This will allow free and unrestricted exchange of scientific information within the global scientific community and beyond, for the advancement of science.

“Open access reflects values and goals that have been enshrined in CERN’s Convention for more than sixty years, such as the widest dissemination of scientific results. We are very pleased that the APS is joining SCOAP3 and we look forward to welcoming more partners for the long-term success of this initiative”, said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s Director General.

APS CEO Kate Kirby commented that, “APS has long supported the principles of open access to the benefit of the scientific enterprise. As a non-profit society publisher and the largest international publisher of high-energy physics content, APS has chosen to participate in the SCOAP3 initiative in support of this community.”

With this new agreement between CERN and the APS, SCOAP3 will cover about 90 percent of the journal literature in the field of high-energy physics.

Convened and managed by CERN, SCOAP3 is the largest scale global open access initiative ever built. It involves a global consortium of 3,000 libraries and research institutes from 44 countries, with the additional support of eight research funding agencies. Since its launch in 2014, it has made 15 000 articles by about 20 000 scientists from 100 countries accessible to anyone.

The initiative is possible through funds made available from the redirection of former subscription monies. Publishers reduce subscription prices for journals participating in the initiative, and those savings are pooled by SCOAP3 partners to pay for the open access costs, for the wider benefit of the community.

Footnote(s)

1. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world's leading laboratories for particle physics. The Organization is located on the French-Swiss border, with its headquarters in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Cyprus and Serbia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.

2. The American Physical Society is a non-profit membership organization working to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics through its outstanding research journals, scientific meetings, and education, outreach, advocacy and international activities. APS represents 54,000 members, including physicists in academia, national laboratories and industry in the United States and throughout the world.

New ALICE experiment results show novel phenomena in proton collisions

Experiments and Tracks

As the number of particles produced in proton collisions (the blue lines) increase, the more of these so-called strange hadrons are seen (as shown by the red squares in the graph). (Image: CERN)Geneva 24 April 2017. In a paper published today in Nature Physics, the ALICE collaboration reports that proton collisions sometimes present similar patterns to those observed in the collisions of heavy nuclei. This behaviour was spotted through observation of so-called strange hadrons in certain proton collisions in which a large number of particles are created. Strange hadrons are well-known particles with names such as Kaon, Lambda, Xi and Omega, all containing at least one so-called strange quark. The observed ‘enhanced production of strange particles’ is a familiar feature of quark-gluon plasma, a very hot and dense state of matter that existed just a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang, and is commonly created in collisions of heavy nuclei. But it is the first time ever that such a phenomenon is unambiguously observed in the rare proton collisions in which many particles are created. This result is likely to challenge existing theoretical models that do not predict an increase of strange particles in these events.

“We are very excited about this discovery,” said Federico Antinori, Spokesperson of the ALICE collaboration. “We are again learning a lot about this primordial state of matter. Being able to isolate the quark-gluon-plasma-like phenomena in a smaller and simpler system, such as the collision between two protons, opens up an entirely new dimension for the study of the properties of the fundamental state that our universe emerged from.”

The study of the quark-gluon plasma provides a way to investigate the properties of strong interaction, one of the four known fundamental forces, while enhanced strangeness production is a manifestation of this state of matter. The quark-gluon plasma is produced at sufficiently high temperature and energy density, when ordinary matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons become ‘free’ and are thus no longer confined within hadrons. These conditions can be obtained at the Large Hadron Collider by colliding heavy nuclei at high energy. Strange quarks are heavier than the quarks composing normal matter, and typically harder to produce. But this changes in presence of the high energy density of the quark-gluon plasma, which rebalances the creation of strange quarks relative to non-strange ones. This phenomenon may now have been observed within proton collisions as well.

In particular, the new results show that the production rate of these strange hadrons increases with the ‘multiplicity’ – the number of particles produced in a given collision – faster than that of other particles generated in the same collision. While the structure of the proton does not include strange quarks, data also show that the higher the number of strange quarks contained in the induced hadron, the stronger is the increase of its production rate. No dependence on the collision energy or the mass of the generated particles is observed, demonstrating that the observed phenomenon is related to the strange quark content of the particles produced. Strangeness production is in practice determined by counting the number of strange particles produced in a given collision, and calculating the ratio of strange to non-strange particles.

Enhanced strangeness production had been suggested as a possible consequence of quark-gluon plasma formation since the early eighties, and discovered in collisions of nuclei in the nineties by experiments at CERN1‘s Super Proton Synchrotron. Another possible consequence of the quark gluon plasma formation is a spatial correlation of the final state particles, causing a distinct preferential alignment with the shape of a ridge. Following its detection in heavy-nuclei collisions, the ridge has also been seen in high-multiplicity proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, giving the first indication that proton collisions could present heavy-nuclei-like properties. Studying these processes more precisely will be key to better understand the microscopic mechanisms of the quark-gluon plasma and the collective behaviour of particles in small systems.

The ALICE experiment has been designed to study collisions of heavy nuclei. It also studies proton-proton collisions, which primarily provide reference data for the heavy-nuclei collisions. The reported measurements have been performed with 7 TeV proton collision data from LHC run 1.

Footnote(s)

1. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s leading laboratories for particle physics. The Organization is located on the French-Swiss border, with its headquarters in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Cyprus and Serbia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.

The Etat de Genève, CERN and the Commune de Meyrin announce the start of work on the Esplanade des Particules in Meyrin

Joint press release by:
the Department of the Environment, Transport and Agriculture,
the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the Commune de Meyrin

Works, Travaux, Reception, Globe, Route de Meyrin,Sites and Aerial Views

Overview of Esplanade des Particule, a renovated space between CERN Globe and Reception to be inaugurated in 2018. (Image: CERN)The Etat de Genève and CERN1 are today announcing the imminent start of work just outside the CERN site to create the brand-new Esplanade des Particules, a space worthy of Europe’s leading laboratory for particle physics. At the gateway into Geneva and Switzerland, CERN is already a top visitor attraction and enjoys global renown. The project will integrate the Laboratory better into the local urban landscape, making it more open and more easily accessible. Work will begin on 18 April and will last for a period of 16 months.

The idea for an Esplanade des Particules came jointly from the République et Canton de Genève, CERN and the Commune de Meyrin. A competition was launched in 2011 for a redesign of the Route de Meyrin intended to showcase the public entrance to CERN. The landscape architects Studio Paolo Bürgi of Ticino won this international competition with their design for a large space dedicated to pedestrians and sustainable modes of transport, connecting CERN’s Reception to the Globe of Science and Innovation, a symbol of CERN and of sustainable development, donated to the Organization by the Swiss Confederation.

In 2016, more than 120 000 people from all over the world visited CERN. In order to facilitate access for this ever-growing number of visitors, the Esplanade des Particules will be a public space aimed at sharing CERN’s creative and dynamic atmosphere, with local and international visitors alike.

40% of the project is financed by the Swiss Confederation in the framework of the urban development project and the remaining 60% is split between the Canton de Genève, CERN and the Commune de Meyrin. “As a cross-border international organisation, CERN embodies the spirit of Grand Genève and I’m happy that this project, which is worthy of this emblematic institution, is coming to fruition,” said Mr Luc Barthassat, state councillor in charge of the Department of the Environment, Transport and Agriculture.

“As with the Globe of Science and Innovation, which symbolises our desire to welcome the general public, the Esplanade des Particules will further demonstrate CERN’s openness to the city of Geneva and to the world,” said Dr Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General. “We are looking forward to working with all of our partners to continue to develop the space around the Globe.”

The Esplanade des Particules is a public space comprising several key features:

  • The current Flags Car Park will be replaced by a blue-coloured pedestrianised area that will extend as far as the Globe.
  • A forest of national flags will cross the Route de Meyrin to link CERN’s main site with the Globe, symbolising CERN’s international collaboration.
  • A large number of covered bike racks will be constructed.
  • The Route de Meyrin will continue to serve road traffic but the speed limit will be reduced to 50 km/h at the point where it crosses through the public area.

“We are pleased to be participating in this project, which will increase CERN’s visibility in the local area,” said Mr Pierre Alain Tschudi, administrative councillor for the Commune de Meyrin. “This work is fully in line with Meyrin’s desire to create attractive and pleasant public spaces to help us all to live together in harmony.”

Impacts of the work on transport:

  • The Route de Meyrin will remain open.
  • Public transport (bus Y and tram 18) will continue to operate.
  • CERN’s entrances will remain accessible.

Video of the design

Photos of the design

All the updates will be published on CERN neighbours site

For more information:

Footnote(s)

1. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s leading laboratories for particle physics. The Organization is located on the French-Swiss border, with its headquarters in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Cyprus and Serbia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.

CMS Virtual Visit from Malta 2017.01.20

CMS Virtual Visit from Malta 2017.01.20

CMS Virtual Visit from Malta 2017.01.20

CMS Virtual Visit from Malta 2017.01.20

Bulgarian Virtual Visit 2016.12.15.

Bulgarian Virtual Visit 2016.12.15. Electron Room

CERN experiment reports sixfold improved measurement of the magnetic moment of the antiproton

BASE

Stefan Ulmer, Spokesperson BASE Collaboration, in Base Experiment (Image: CERN)Geneva, 18 January 2017. In a paper published today in the journal Nature Communications, the BASE collaboration at CERN1 reports the most precise measurement ever made of the magnetic moment of the antiproton, allowing a fundamental comparison between matter and antimatter. The BASE measurement shows that the magnetic moments of the proton and antiproton are identical, apart from their opposite signs, within the experimental uncertainty of 0.8 parts per million. The result improves the precision of the previous best measurement by the ATRAP collaboration in 2013, also at CERN, by a factor of 6.

At the scale of elementary particles, an almost perfect symmetry between matter and antimatter exists. On cosmological scales, however, the amount of matter outweighs that of antimatter. Understanding this profound contradiction demands that physicists compare the fundamental properties of particles and their antiparticles with high precision.

BASE uses antiprotons from CERN’s unique antimatter factory, the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), and is designed specifically to perform precision measurements of the antimatter counterparts of normal matter particles. The magnetic moment, which determines how a particle behaves when immersed in a magnetic field, is one of the most studied intrinsic characteristics of a particle. Although different particles have different magnetic behaviour, the magnetic moments of protons and antiprotons are supposed to differ only in their sign as a consequence of so-called charge-parity-time symmetry. Any difference in their magnitudes would challenge the Standard Model of particle physics and would offer a glimpse of new physics.

To perform the experiments, the BASE collaboration cools down antiprotons to the extremely low temperature of about 1 degree above absolute zero, and traps them using sophisticated electromagnetic containers so that they do not come into contact with matter and annihilate (thanks to such devices, BASE has recently managed to store a bunch of antiprotons for more than one year). From here, antiprotons are fed one-by-one to further traps where their behaviour under magnetic fields allows researchers to determine their intrinsic magnetic moment. Similar techniques have already been successfully applied in the past to electrons and their antimatter partners, positrons, but antiprotons present a much bigger challenge because their magnetic moments are considerably weaker. The new BASE measurement required a specially designed magnetic “bottle” that is more than 1000 times stronger than that used in electron/positron experiments.

“This measurement is so far the culmination point of 10 years of hard work by the BASE team,” said Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson of the BASE collaboration. “Together with other AD experiments, we are really making rapid progress in our understanding of antimatter.”

BASE now plans to measure the antiproton magnetic moment using a new trapping technique that should enable a precision at the level of a few parts per billion – i.e. a factor of 200 to 800 improvement. “The implementation of this method is much more challenging than the method which was used here and will require several additional iteration steps,” says first author Hiroki Nagahama.

Further information:

Link to the paper in Nature Communications: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14084

Pictures of the BASE experiment: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2242307

Footnote(s)

1. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is the world’s leading laboratory for particle physics. Its headquarters are in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Cyprus and Serbia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.